American Psychological Association (APA) Style is used for registration of works related to the social sciences. APA’s style was developed by sociologists and scientists studying behavior problems, for applying it in coursework, research reports, technical and economic analyzes, literary reviews, methodological articles. APA essay example:
Essay APA Format
- The interval between the lines must be made double, starting from the title page and ending with a list of used sources.
- You can use any well-readable font, but the American Psychological Association recommends that it be preferred 12 px Times New Roman.
- Each paragraph should begin with an indentation of 1.27 cm (0.5 inches) from the left margin.
The width of all the fields is 2.54 cm (1 inch).
- The header must be present on every page. The page numbers are specified without indenting the right margin. “Document Name” is printed in the header without any indentation in all caps.
- The footer contains a shortened version of the title of the document, which can not exceed 50 characters, including spaces and punctuation marks.
- A document usually consists of four main sections: a cover page, an annotation, the work itself, a list of used sources. The main text is divided into such subsections as introduction, methodology, results, discussion. There is no need to head subsections exactly like this. Rather, it is a conditional division.
APA Cover Page
- Cover page contains the name of the document, the name of the author, membership of the institution and the footer, as described above.
- The name is printed with a capital letter, it should be centered on the top half of the page, it can occupy only one or two lines.
- APA recommends that the length of the title does not exceed 12 words. Under it is indicated the name of the author: name, initials of the middle name, surname. It is not necessary to indicate a post (director) or a degree (ds).
- The name of the organization/university is printed under the author’s name.
- Begins with a new sheet, which already contains a footer. At the top center is the word “Abstract” (without quotes, without the selection in bold, italic, underline).
- Starting with the next line, write an accurate summary of the key points of the study. The abstract should contain, as a minimum, the research topic, the questions posed, the enumeration of participants, methods, results and conclusions; consist of one paragraph (150-200 words) with a double interval. The abstract may also include the name of the future work related to the current results.
- You can add keywords to the annotation sheet. In the second paragraph, a red line is printed in italics “Key words” (without quotes) and then lists words that will help other researchers find this work in databases.
Heading style APA have 5 levels and are designed as follows:
|1||In the center of the page, in bold, with a capital letter all the words. The paragraph of the text begins below with a red line.|
|2||Without an indent from the left margin, in bold capital letters all words. The paragraph of the text begins below with a red line.|
|3||From the red line, in bold, small letters (except the first letter of the first word), at the end a dot is placed. The paragraph of the text begins on the header line.|
|4||From the red line, in bold, italic, small letters (except the first letter of the first word), at the end a dot is placed. The paragraph of the text begins on the header line.|
|5||From the red line, in italics, in small letters (except the first letter of the first word), at the end a dot is placed. The paragraph of the text begins on the header line.|
APA Citations in the Text
- In the APA format, the author-date citation method is used. This means that the author’s surname and year of publication of the source should appear in the text, for example (Jones, 1998), and complete information on the source is on the list of sources used.
- If you mention an idea taken from another work, but this is not a direct quote from the material or if you refer to a whole book, article or other work, you need to specify in the text only the author and the year of publication without page numbers.
- Short quotes are made out as described above, but with reference to page numbers.
- If there is no author, the name (or its abbreviated form, if it is long) and year is indicated.
- If there is no date, use the abbreviation “bd” without the quotes. For example: According to Jones (1998), “Students often experience difficulties using the APA style, especially the first time” (p. 199). Jones (1998) found that “Students often experience difficulties using the APA style” (p. 199). If the introductory phrase does not contain an indication of the author, then the citation is made this way: She believes that “Students often experience difficulties using the APA style” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but does not explain why this happens.
- Quotations over 40 words in length are formatted as a separate block without quotes. To do this, you need to start a quote after entering, retreating 1.27 cm (0.5 inches). from the left field, the entire quote should be printed with such an indent. Information about the author, the year of publication, the page should be formatted in the same way as in short quotes.
Footnotes on the Page and Endnotes
- The American Psychological Association does not recommend the use of footnotes, as this leads to additional costs in large runs. However, if explanatory additions are necessary, footnote numbers in the upper index are placed after any punctuation except dashes.
- When footnotes are used in test programs such as Microsoft Word, footnotes can be placed at the bottom of the page. Also they can be placed on the last sheet of the document under the name “Footnotes”. The word is formatted in the center at the top of the page. Before the first line of each footnote there should be an indent from the field of five spaces.
APA List of Sources Used
- This list provides the information necessary for the reader to find any source, the quotation from which is given in the text. Each quoted source must be listed.
- This section should start on a new sheet separately from the work itself. The name “Used sources” is located at the top center (do not highlight it in bold, underline or quotes).
- All the lines of each record, except the first, begin after an indentation from the left margin of 1.27 cm (0.5 inches).
- First, author’s surname, then his initials are indicated. All authors are listed, if there are less than seven or seven people. If there are more than seven, then the first six names are listed, followed by dots, after the dots indicate the name of the last author of the work.
- The list is based on alphabetical order based on the first letters of the author’s surnames.
- If several articles by one author or authors are mentioned, they should be listed in chronological order from the earliest to the latest date.
- The names of the journals are indicated in full with the use of the capital letters, punctuation marks and italics by the journal itself.
- When referring to books, chapters, articles, web pages, with a capital letter, only the title, subtitle, first word after the colon, and also proper names are written.
- The names of longer works (books, magazines) are written in italics.
- You can not write in italics, emphasize or frame the names of smaller works, such as journal articles or essays from collections.