If you are looking for a short instruction on writing the application essay, here it is:
- Write an Introduction, in which you need to gradually bring the reader to what you will prove in the Core.
- Write the central part in which you need to show your opinion with the help of literary arguments.
- Write a Conclusion, which contains the main conclusion of the whole work.
If you are looking for detailed instruction on writing an essay, then proceed: if a particular topic seems complicated to you? You will get into a difficult situation: you will not be able to restructure and pick up the necessary material.
Algorithm of work on essay
The first thing you need to choose a topic. Do not select a subject in which you can not formulate a literary argument that confirms your position on the issue. If you can give arguments on several topics, then choose the most understandable and simple theme.
You can write an essay on the following algorithm:
- Choose a topic by which you can bring an argument from the literature.
- Identify the issue that is contained in the topic of the essay.
- Formulate the theses (basic ideas, answers to the question), which reveal the problem.
- Choose works by which you can prove your point of view.
- Think of the composition of the work, write a plan.
- Write a draft of the work.
- Reread the writing. Make necessary corrections to the composition and speech design.
- Write the final version of the work.
- Reread the writing. Correct the errors noted.
How to work on a draft and an essay plan?
A draft is a sheet for preliminary, rough records. Drafts after the exam are taken, but they are not taken into account when checking the essay.
There are different ways of working with a draft. Some graduates are accustomed to writing the entire text on a draft, and then after editing, transfer it to a clean copy. Others prefer to work with individual parts: first, write the finished fragment on the draft, and then, after editing it, transfer it to a clean copy. Some immediately write the text in the clean. The latter method is undesirable: the text will still require editing, and fixes in the cleanroom will make the work sloppy.
At the stage of choosing a topic, you can sketch on the draft of the name of the artwork necessary for the disclosure of the question. After you decide on the topic, try to formulate the central thesis – the idea that you will justify in your essay. In order not to deviate from the topic, make sure that during the whole work you adhere to the initially chosen thought and answer the question posed.
Selecting the material, highlight the primary and secondary information in it. Determine what “semantic parts” you can divide the thesis – this will help you to build the composition of the composition. Think about what material will be auxiliary – it can be used to explain, specify, substantiate the main idea.
The structure of the essay should look like this (the number of abstracts does not matter):
|The Problem Question|
|1. Thesis||2. Thesis||3. Thesis|
|1. Argument from literature||2. Argument from literature||3. Argument from literature|
|1. Your conclusion||2. Your conclusion||3. Your conclusion|
Work on writing is hardly possible without a plan. The plan of the composition is the concept and structure of your work, briefly formulated the main ideas that will be developed in the piece. A plan is a sequence of your thoughts, these are your arguments and proofs in your work – in other words, everything that makes a composition an essay. The first outline of the plan may contain individual thoughts. The function of the plan can be performed by schemes or tables in which the logic of the unfolding of thought is planned. The detailed work plan can resemble a summary in which the ideas of the introductory and final parts are described; citations are given, some fragments are spelled out, logical transitions between sections are thought over.
Work on essay composition
The criterion for the evaluation of composition No. 3 is the composition, i.e., the semantic integrity of the work, how well thought out the construction of the work.
Traditionally, three parts of the composition are singled out:
- an introduction, the task of which is to introduce the topic, give preliminary, general information about the problem that lies behind the proposed topic;
- the central part, which directly reveals the theme of the work, provides reasoning, the text of the work of art is analyzed;
- the conclusion, in which the result is summarized, is summarized.
The absence in the composition of one of these elements of the essay is regarded as an error and is taken into account when stating the points.
The composition of the essay should look like this:
|Introduction||Preparation for the perception of the fundamental thoughts of work|
|Main part||Thesis 1
|Conclusion||Generalization throughout the topic. Conclusions (if there are several, each output is written from a new line)|
How to write an introduction?
|Type of introduction||Description||Example|
|Analytical||May contain a reflection on the central concept of the topic of writing (war, conscience, charity).||According to the explanatory dictionary, fidelity is the immutability and persistence of feelings towards something or anyone, the ability to firmly, unswervingly carry out its duty, to restrain promises. This is the opposite of insidiousness, betrayal, treachery, deceit. Fidelity does not wait for anything in return; it is not negotiated in advance, it is always with a person in any of its endeavors, whether it be a relationship with people or with their inner world, thoughts, judgments, faith.|
|Personality||Supposes the statement of his position, the presentation of thoughts, feelings connected with the theme of the work.||I did not accidentally choose this topic. The problem that it touches interests me not only as a reader but also as a person who lives in the interests of his time and his generation.|
The introduction should not be substantial. Make sure that it is organically connected with the content of the central part in meaning and stylistically.
How to write the main part?
The main part is a test of how correctly the topic is understood. The content of the essay should be devoted to the disclosure of a specific topic, so it is especially difficult to give some universal recipes.
First of all, it is necessary to pay attention to a clear division of the text into paragraphs. Each paragraph is a relatively complete whole. The section should be devoted to the presentation of one idea. It should not start with one idea and end with another. Proposals should be logically linked so that each subsequent one is the answer to the question that arises from the reader after reading the previous sentence. If the reader has to return and re-read the paragraph two or three times, this means that the paragraph is not agreed, the sentences do not follow logically one after another. The new section is a new thought, one way or another connected with the previous one. Therefore it is necessary to think through logical transitions from one idea to another. You can use the following words and phrases to express the relationship between paragraphs:
- First, first of all, then, firstly, secondly, it means, therefore (the sequence of the development of thought);
- However, meanwhile, while, nevertheless (the relationship of contradiction, opposition);
- Therefore, due to this, as a consequence of this, also, moreover (even cause-effect relationships);
- Turn to…, remember also, we will stop at…, we pass to…, it is necessary to stop on…, it is necessary to consider… (transition from one thought to another);
- So, therefore, in conclusion, I want to note, all that has been said allows us to conclude, summing up, we should say… (result, conclusion).
Using Literary Arguments
In the composition, it is necessary to use the literary material for constructing reasoning on the proposed topic and for the argumentation of your position, so you will need knowledge of the content of artworks and the ability to correctly include literary material in the text of your work.
When arguing for your opinion, you should avoid reporting information that is not directly related to the topic. Also, it is not recommended to retell the text of a literary work.
How to write a conclusion?
|Type of conclusion||Description||Example|
|Generalization of the written||The most typical and logical ending of the composition. Most often in this conclusion, we return to the main idea of the work, expounding it more widely and emotionally.||So, as history and fiction tell us, a high life goal induces a person to improve the world and himself, does not allow us to dwell on the path of eternal striving for an ideal.|
|A rhetorical question||The interrogative sentence, including the rhetorical question, at the end of the essay, brings the reader back to the main problem, concluded in the theme of the paper, emphasizing its relevance.||So, real friends get to know in trouble. They come when it is hard for us. Come to support, help. They come, without waiting for our requests and without demanding gratitude. Is not this the high meaning of friendship?|
|Appeal to the reader||The appeal to the reader, focuses on the main idea of the work, prompting the reader to change his attitude to the problem.||Concluding my essay, I want to ask you: look around you, think about whether there are people nearby who need comfort, help, just in a kind living word. Think: what do you want to be – an indifferent egoist or a sympathetic person who brings good to others?|
|Quote||It should be remembered that not every quotation will be appropriate in conclusion. It must be a statement that fully expresses your thoughts.||Bernard Shaw once said that indifference is the most significant sin against one’s neighbor. It is difficult not to agree with this idea. As the experience of fiction shows, it is indifference that gradually empties a person internally, condemning him to loneliness.|
The conclusion should sum up all your work; it is logical to finish your thoughts on the topic of the essay. Judgment, like the introduction, should be organically linked to the main text.
Note that the conclusion is not a mere repetition of arguments, as it often happens in the works of students. This is necessarily new information, which is of a general nature.
Typical mistakes in the essay
The most typical mistakes that are often encountered in works can be grouped as follows:
- Factual error is the distortion of information about events, objects, persons mentioned in the text of the work.
- Speech errors is a violation of the norms of use and compatibility of the word.
- Grammatical errors is an error in the structure of a language unit: in the structure of a word, phrase or sentence. Such errors are associated with the violation of any grammatical norm – word-formative, morphological, syntactic.
Often the cause of grammatical errors, especially the violation of alignment, is inattention when rewriting the text. It is necessary to correctly plan the time to carefully read the text of the composition and make the required corrections.